Big mac index 2012 pdf

Review our cookies policy for more details and to change your cookie preference. By continuing to browse this site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Select base currency: The 'select base currency' button allows you to choose from five base currencies: You can also choose to see the index in its original 'raw' form, or adjusted for GDP per person.

By default, the panel at the bottom displays a scatter chart plotting the local price of a Big Mac expressed in the current base currency against GDP per person in that country. Select individual points for details. As you explore the map, the scatter chart will be replaced by a line chart plotting the highlighted country's under- or over-valuation against the current base currency over time.

Interactive currency-comparison tool: The Big Mac index | The Economist.pdf

You've reached the end of this preview. Share this link with a friend: Other Related Materials 6 pages. China Politics Econ Japan in Chinese history 1. Welfare and work in America: Similarly in Argentina, where up to 2. The cost of the IOL can drastically influence the cost of surgery in these countries, in which patients pay out-of-pocket for consumables as further exemplified by Colombia. Furthermore, due to the long waitlists for government surgeries, many patients will end up not receiving the free surgery.

With the exception of Japan, where there are no free cataract surgeries and prices are set by the Japanese Social Insurance Medical Fee Payment Munehitasuka, Personal Communications , there is no single price for cataract surgery at the country level. Therefore, only the price of the private, out-of-pocket, phaco-surgery was considered in this affordability analysis. The prices of extracapsular extraction and manual incision cataract surgical procedures were not included in the data, although they tend to be significantly lower than that of phacoemulsification and, in some countries, the preferred method for public eye care.

Therefore, the cataract prices worldwide are priced high in this study, and they are sample prices from each country that may not be representative of the overall average price of cataract surgery. With the exception of India, all the other countries in this study are upper middle or high income, where cataract blindness is not such a high burden. If universal health coverage indicators were to be determined in the future, a similar exercise could perhaps be done considering the average prices charged to each patient that perhaps would give a more realistic picture of the affordability of cataract surgery as it compares the out-of-pocket expenditures and accessibility of health care in countries.

This research could be likewise expanded, based on availability of data, to include correlation between price of cataract surgery and disposable income in different countries.. Finally, it should be taken into consideration that this study does not attempt to provide an in-depth economic analysis, nor does it aim to find a mathematical model for cataract price structure. A simple method is applied to assess the affordability of cataract surgery, which could assist eye care professionals and program managers in advocacy and planning for cataract activity. It is beyond the scope of this paper to develop or validate the data; the data and statistical analysis presented merely attempt to understand if there is a relationship between the price of cataract surgery and the price of the Big Mac and GDP..

EconPapers: The Big Mac Index Two Decades On An Evaluation Of Burgernomics

Limitations aside, the results in Figs. Cataract surgery appears to be expensive in some countries, indicating that the direct payment of cataract surgery does not necessarily correlate to the cost of living. Perhaps, future studies could further research the comprehensive in-country cost data needed to better understand the affordability of cataract surgery in different countries.. The authors declare that no experiments were performed on humans or animals for this study..

The authors declare that no patient data appear in this article.. The authors thank the following individuals for their contributions on price of cataract surgery in this study:. Indexada en: Descargar PDF. Van C. Lansingh a , b , c ,. Autor para correspondencia.

Under a Creative Commons license. Table 1. Table 2. Table 4. Table 5. Purpose One barrier to cataract surgery is its high price in some countries. This study aims to understand to what extent the price of cataract surgery is over- or undervalued and whether it varies in relation to GDP using The Economist newspaper Big Mac Index BMcI methodology, which measures the purchasing power parity between different currencies. Methods Peer-reviewed articles containing information on cataract surgery prices were searched from to June in databases. Big Mac prices in different countries were obtained at The Economist website.

Results Data were collected from 20 countries and the Euro Zone. Conclusion The price of cataract surgery does not consider the patient's capacity to pay, based on a simple tool such as the BMcI. Palabras clave:. Texto Completo. Moreover, large currency changes in the long term can make cataract surgery more or less expensive along with many other services depending on how much the country imports goods and how the currency changes affect the national economy.

Average for five cities. Weighted average prices in Euro Zone countries. Maharaja Mac. Prices are standardized to USD and are for phacoemulsification. All Personal Communications are from Western Guangdong province. Table 3. Mean price of cataract surgery in USD. Estimates of reliability are based on whether the source is peer-reviewed, and most importantly the year prices were calculated, with most recent prices more reliable than very old data. Figure 1. Correlation between Big Mac price and cataract surgery price.

Figure 2. Correlation between cataract surgery price and gross domestic product GDP per capita purchasing power parity, or PPP method. The authors thank the following individuals for their contributions on price of cataract surgery in this study: Pascolini, S. Global estimates of visual impairment: Br J Ophthalmol, 96 , pp. Lansingh, M.

Use of global visual acuity data in a time trade-off approach to calculate the cost utility of cataract surgery. Arch Ophthalmol, , pp. Carter, M. Ophthalmology, , pp. The Economist online, , July 30 ,. Burgernomics show Switzerland has the most overvalued currency. The Economist online, , January 12 ,.

Inflation conversion factors for years to estimated Oregon State University, Asimakis, D. Coster, D. Cost effectiveness of cataract surgery: Aust N Z J Ophthalmol, 24 , pp. Fan, D. Boldy, D. Comparing patient satisfaction, outcomes, and costs between cataract day surgery and inpatient surgery for elderly people. Aust Health Rev, 20 , pp. Filho, F. Saad, L. Cost of phacoemulsification in the national campaign of elective cataract surgery in Itapolis, SP, Brazil.

Arq Bras Oftalmol, 68 , pp.

The Big Mac Index two decades on: an evaluation of burgernomics

Kara Jr. Sirtoli, M. Phacoemulsification versus extracapsular extraction: Clinics Sao Paulo , 65 , pp.

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Chen, S. A cost-analysis of unilateral vs. Clin Surg Ophthalmol, 23 , pp. Gonder, C. Immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery versus delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery: Can J Ophthalmol, 45 , pp. He, V. Chan, E. Willingness to pay for cataract surgery in rural Southern China. Increasing the volume of cataract surgery: Community Eye Health, 19 , pp. Comparative study on preventing avoidable blindness in China and in Nepal. Chin Med J Engl , , pp. Fang, X.


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Wang, Z. Variation in cataract surgery costs in four different graded providers of China. BMC Public Health, 10 , pp. Ko, K. Frick, J. Willingness to pay for potential enhancements to a low-cost cataract surgical package in rural southern China. Acta Ophthalmol, 90 , http: Anderson, C. Black, E. Willingness to pay to shorten waiting time for cataract surgery. Health Aff Millwood , 16 , pp. Krootila, H. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 4 , pp. Leivo, A. Sarikkola, R. Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery: J Cataract Refract Surg, 37 , pp.

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The Big Mac Index Two Decades On An Evaluation Of Burgernomics

Orme, A. Paine, C. Cost-effectiveness of the AMO array multifocal intraocular lens in cataract surgery. J Refract Surg, 18 , pp. Landwehr, M. Tehrani, H. Cost effectiveness evaluation of cataract patient care in respect of monofocal intraocular lenses from the perspective of German statutory health insurance. Kin Monatsbl Augenheilkd, , pp. Pagel, H. Dick, F. Incremental cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd, , pp. Muralikrishnan, R. Venkatesh, N. Economic cost of cataract surgery procedures in an established eye care centre in Southern India.

Ophthalmol Epidemiol, 11 , pp. Gogate, M. Deshpande, P. Why do phacoemulsification? Manual small-incision cataract surgery is almost as effective, but less expensive. Shmueli, O. Intrator, A. Soc Sci Med, 55 , pp. Cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery in Japan. Jpn J Ophthalmol, 55 , pp. Loo, M. Kandiah, G. Cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of cataract surgery at the Malaysian Ministry of Health ophthalmic services. Int Ophthalmol, 25 , pp. Rizal, S.


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    Laurendeau, A. Eye Lond , 24 , pp. Cataract surgery: Castells, J. Alonso, M. Outcomes and costs of outpatient and inpatient cataract surgery: J Clin Epidemiol, 54 , pp. Berge, I. Cataract surgery and effectiveness. Variation in costs between different providers of cataract surgery. Acta Ophthalmol Scand, 78 , pp. Jongsareejit, C. Wiriyaluppa, P. J Med Assoc Thail, 95 , pp. Minassian, P. Rosen, J. Extracapsular cataract extraction compared with small incision surgery by phacoemulsification: Br J Ophthalmol, 85 , pp.